Institutional Challenges in the Implementation Process: A Case Study of Rural Transport Accessibility in Kuala Krai, Kelantan

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Maria binti Mohd Ismail
Raja Noriza binti Raja Ariffin


The central aim of many transport systems is to improve people’s access to goods, services and facilities. Improving transport access can subsequently reduce social isolation. Compared to urban areas, the issue of accessibility is more prominent in rural areas due to its distances from many opportunities. It has been proven in many studies that the provision of rural infrastructure and the improvement of rural transport can upgrade the social well-being of the rural community. The process of improving rural access should always start with the identification of the transportation needs of the community and their mobility patterns. This paper narrates the institutional challenges in implementing rural transport accessibility strategies in Kuala Krai, Kelantan. The district is located in the northeast of Peninsular Malaysia. The qualitative case-study approach used in this study involved 17 respondents; thirteen policymakers from federal, state and local governments, two local transport operators and two rural transport experts. The findings show that among the institutional challenges in the implementation process are poor communication and coordination, lack of transport planning experts and limited financial resources. The findings provide critical inputs for policymakers at various decision-making levels, namely federal, state and local, in planning and designing a more accessible transportation system for the rural population. 


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