Institutions and Economies <div align="justify"> <p>Institutions and Economies is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya. The journal is published four times a year, in January, April, July and October. The journal publishes research articles and book reviews. Only original articles that are not under consideration by other publishers are welcome. Special issues are also welcome but interested special issue editors must submit a proposal to the Editor-In-Chief for consideration. The journal is indexed in SCOPUS, IDEAS, MYCite, ECONPapers, ASEAN Citation Index (ACI), EBSCO and Asian Digital Library. Institutions and Economies is a recipient of the CREAM Award 2016 by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia.</p> <p>Print ISSN: 2232 - 1640<br />E - ISSN: 2232 - 1349 </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Peer Review Statement </strong></p> <p><strong><em>All research articles in the journal have undergone rigorous peer review. The process consists of an initial screening by the</em> <em>Editor-In-Chief, Deputy Editor and</em><em> Associate Editors, followed by double-blind refereeing: two reviewers for articles. Articles in special issues go through double-blind refereeing and one internal review by the Editorial Board. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><br />IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT</strong></p> <p>Beginning <strong>1st March 2021</strong>, <strong>there will be no submission fee for this journal. </strong> There will be a <strong>publication fee of USD100/- per article</strong> to partially cover the expenses of copy editing of accepted manuscripts. <strong>Payment of the publication fee should only be made after acceptance of a manuscript.</strong> The detailed information of the payment process can be seen <a href="">here</a>. Payment of the publication fee can be done at this <a href="">website</a>.</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="SnapLinksContainer" style="margin-left: 0px; margin-top: 0px; display: none;"> <div class="SL_SelectionRect"> <div class="SL_SelectionLabel" style="right: 2px; bottom: 2px;">0 Links</div> </div> <!-- Used for easily cloning the properly namespaced rect --></div> <div class="SnapLinksContainer" style="margin-left: 0px; margin-top: 0px; display: none;"> <div class="SL_SelectionRect"> </div> <!-- Used for easily cloning the properly namespaced rect --></div> University of Malaya en-US Institutions and Economies 2232-1640 <p>Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described is original, has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out. Transfer of copyright to the University of Malaya becomes effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline and online) or other reproductions of similar nature.<br />An author may self-archive the English language version of his/her article on his/her own website and his/her institutions repository; however he/she may not use the publishers PDF version which is posted on Furthermore, the author may only post his/her version, provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link must be accompanied by the following text: The original publication is available at</p> <p>All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and redistribute the article (e.g. as offprint), as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic database, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from the publishers. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.</p> <p>The copyright owners consent does not include copying for general distribution, promotion, new works, or resale. In these cases, specific written permission must first be obtained from the publishers.</p> Islamic Banks: History, Stability and Lessons from Cooperative Banking <p><em>Islamic banking’s profit-maximising fervour, building upon the use of interest-resembling products, has raised concerns about its Shariah authenticity and financial stability. While early Islamic economists envisioned an industry built on values of mutuality and participation, architects of Islamic banking have chosen to replicate interest-based conventional banking for the purpose of fast growth. This study has two objectives. First, to narrate the history of Islamic banking, from the theories postulated to the beginnings of the industry. This builds an understanding of why ‘Islamic’ banking operates as it does currently, which has implications for Shariah compliance and financial stability. It is suggested that the mimicking of conventional banks may cause instability since unlike commercial banks, ‘Islamic’ banks face Shariah constraints. This leads to the second objective, which is to analyse the cooperative banking model, which has been described as the closest theoretical model to Islamic banking. Specifically, this study focuses on the model in Europe which, despite its challenges, has managed to silence critics in the way it contributes to communal welfare and financial stability, especially during credit crunches when commercial banks are known to retreat from markets. This first study of a functioning cooperative banking model, in the context of Islamic banking, may thus offer lessons for Islamic banking reform.</em></p> Rosana Gulzar Mansor H. Ibrahim Mohamed Ariff Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 26 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no3.1 Gross Capital Inflows in Indonesia: Exploring Bonanzas and Sudden Stops <p><em>This paper examines episodes of capital bonanzas and sudden stops in Indonesia by utilising binary response models and several episode-identification approaches. Our identification suggests that whenever bonanza episodes occurred, capital sudden stop episodes followed in a more extended period. The estimations demonstrate that domestic factors are relatively dominant in determining the capital bonanzas, and the federal funds rate has a more significant impact on inducing the probability of capital sudden stops in Indonesia. We also found that Turkey and South Africa are the most contagious economies for Indonesia. This paper proposes some policy reforms to enhance the stability of capital inflows in Indonesia, including financial regulation and public finance policies such as a reverse Tobin tax and market-driven public debt rules.</em></p> Syahid Izzulhaq Muhammad Rizal Taufikurahman Afaqa Hudaya Mohammad Reza Hafiz Akbar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 27 52 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no3.2 Sustainability of Women’s Employment Rate for Malaysian Economic Development <p><em>This research paper develops a model for the sustainability of women’s employment rate in Malaysia’s economic development. This study examined annual data from 1982 to 2018, with 37 observations. A new econometric method was adopted to determine both short-run and long-run relationships among the variables using the Johansen Cointegration rank test, Vector Error Correction Method (VECM) with error correction model of cointegration equation. The VECM results revealed significant and positive short-term relationships between foreign direct investment, gross domestic product (GDP), and the negative short-term relationship of the lagged period of women’s employment rate to women employment rate (WER). The variables, GDP, education level, and women’s marital status are cointegrated and have a long-term relationship between WER in the cointegration equation. The Johansen Cointegration rank test also showed the existence of cointegration equations, and a long-term relationship between the variables. Eventually, the residual diagnosis, significant error term, and the performance of the model evaluation were found as satisfactory and valid. In short, this research paves the way for policymakers to construct a better policy for the future of women’s employment sustainability.</em></p> Aye Aye Khin Mei Peng Low Moe Shwe Sin Seethaletchumy Thambiah Soh Chong Yu Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 53 79 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no3.3 Who Wins in International Investment Arbitration Disputes? Evidence from Latin American and Caribbean Countries’ Cases under ICSID <p>During the nineties, an important group of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries adhered to the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) as part of a programme of measures that sought to attract foreign investment to the region. With the aim of exploring the determinants of arbitration outcomes, I use a dataset of 161 concluded disputes until 2019 corresponding to investments in LAC countries, finding evidence on the influence of parties’ characteristics, the subject discussed in cases, and characteristics of the tribunal on the arbitration outcomes. I find that 50% of tribunal decisions have been favourable to either claimant investors or host countries. However, this result may be subject to sample bias if information of settlements and discontinued cases is not taken into consideration. I also find evidence in favour of selection and party capability theories that helps to explain the determinants of international investment arbitration dispute outcomes. In particular, the results reveal that disputes related to direct expropriations have a relatively higher probability of being considered founded by tribunals than other legal controversies. Likewise, the indicators of the relative strength of parties, such as experience in the international arbitration system, have an important influence on tribunal awards. Furthermore, country’s time of experience within ICSID is found to have an important influence on the selection of disputes.</p> Gonzalo Ruiz Diaz Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 81 113 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no3.4 Economic Considerations of Legal Delimitation: Evidence from Judicial Verdicts in Bangladesh Courts <p>The literature on law and economics argues that economic considerations have an important implication for consistent and efficient legal practices. In line with this tradition, this paper aims to analyse legal verdicts through the lens of transaction cost to ascertain if judicial decision takes social cost into account. In so doing, the research draws upon the literature of transaction cost theory, which examines the implications of transaction cost for legal verdicts. Data for the analysis consist of legal verdicts collected from Bangladesh. The paper shows that judicial decisions are influenced by economic matters, especially social and transaction costs. When the issue of these costs is clear, judges take this into consideration in deciding who should own what rights. This research contributes to the literature of law and economics by providing new information, which is believed to help regulators, policymakers, and legal practitioners in deciding value-creating property rights.</p> Mohammad Dulal Miah Mohammed Usman Yasushi Suzuki Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 115 135 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no3.5 China-Africa and an Economic Transformation Rajah Rasiah Copyright (c) 2021 Institutions and Economies 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 137 139 Aiming High: Navigating the Next Stage of Malaysia’s Development VGR Chandran Govindaraju Copyright (c) 2021 Institutions and Economies 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 141 145