Institutions and Economies <div align="justify"> <p>Institutions and Economies is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya. The journal is published four times a year, in January, April, July and October. The journal publishes research articles and book reviews. Only original articles that are not under consideration by other publishers are welcome. Special issues are also welcome but interested special issue editors must submit a proposal to the Editor-In-Chief for consideration. The journal is indexed in SCOPUS, IDEAS, MYCite, ECONPapers, ASEAN Citation Index (ACI), EBSCO and Asian Digital Library. Institutions and Economies is a recipient of the CREAM Award 2016 by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia.</p> <p>Print ISSN: 2232 - 1640<br />E - ISSN: 2232 - 1349 </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Peer Review Statement </strong></p> <p><strong><em>All research articles in the journal have undergone rigorous peer review. The process consists of an initial screening by the</em> <em>Editor-In-Chief, Deputy Editor and</em><em> Associate Editors, followed by double-blind refereeing: two reviewers for articles. Articles in special issues go through double-blind refereeing and one internal review by the Editorial Board. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><br />IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT</strong></p> <p>Beginning <strong>1st March 2021</strong>, <strong>there will be no submission fee for this journal. </strong> There will be a <strong>publication fee of USD100/- per article</strong> to partially cover the expenses of copy editing of accepted manuscripts. <strong>Payment of the publication fee should only be made after acceptance of a manuscript.</strong> The detailed information of the payment process can be seen <a href="">here</a>. Payment of the publication fee can be done at this <a href="">website</a>.</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="SnapLinksContainer" style="margin-left: 0px; margin-top: 0px; display: none;"> <div class="SL_SelectionRect"> <div class="SL_SelectionLabel" style="right: 2px; bottom: 2px;">0 Links</div> </div> <!-- Used for easily cloning the properly namespaced rect --></div> <div class="SnapLinksContainer" style="margin-left: 0px; margin-top: 0px; display: none;"> <div class="SL_SelectionRect"> </div> <!-- Used for easily cloning the properly namespaced rect --></div> University of Malaya en-US Institutions and Economies 2232-1640 <p>Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described is original, has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out. Transfer of copyright to the University of Malaya becomes effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline and online) or other reproductions of similar nature.<br />An author may self-archive the English language version of his/her article on his/her own website and his/her institutions repository; however he/she may not use the publishers PDF version which is posted on Furthermore, the author may only post his/her version, provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link must be accompanied by the following text: The original publication is available at</p> <p>All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and redistribute the article (e.g. as offprint), as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic database, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from the publishers. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.</p> <p>The copyright owners consent does not include copying for general distribution, promotion, new works, or resale. In these cases, specific written permission must first be obtained from the publishers.</p> The Changing Marriage Institution in Malaysia Gavin W. Jones Tey Nai Peng Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 1 3 Correlates and Consequences of Delayed Marriage in Malaysia <p>This paper aims to examine the correlates of age at first marriage and the consequences of late marriage. Data for this paper were drawn from the 2014 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. Simple cross-tabulation and multiple classification analysis were used for the analysis. Age at marriage of women varied across socio-economic groups. Among the ethnic groups, the Other Bumiputera entered marriage earliest, followed by the Malays, Indians and Chinese. Age at marriage was positively associated with urbanisation, educational level, and women’s autonomy in marriage. The assumption of modern norms and ideas, and escalating cost of marriage are important determinants of marriage postponement. Late marriage has a direct impact on demographic outcomes, resulting in ultra-low fertility for some groups of the population. Marriage postponement has positive socio-economic outcomes for individuals. However, postponing marriage beyond the prime reproductive age may result in some reproductive health problems.</p> Abdul Shukur Abdullah Nai Peng Tey Irwan Nadzif Mahpul Nur Airena Aireen Azman Rosdiana Abdul Hamid Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 5 34 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no4.1 Divorce in Malaysia: Historical Trends and Contemporary Issues <p>Divorce rates in Malaysia have risen substantially in the first two decades of the 21st century. The main upsurge was between 2007 and 2010, after which the rates levelled off. The Muslim divorce rate remains at a level more than double that of non-Muslims, though the trends in divorce have moved in the same direction for both groups. East Malaysia has its own patterns. Muslim divorce rates in Sabah are only half those in Peninsular Malaysia, as are non-Muslim divorce rates in both Sabah and Sarawak. Although information is not available for Malaysia about the proportion of Muslim divorces initiated by wives, for both Indonesia and Singapore, more than two thirds of Muslim divorces are initiated by the wife. Clearly, many similar forces are influencing divorce for both Muslims and non-Muslims in the predominantly urban populations of these three countries. “Modern divorce” is related to the pressures of urban living; pressures of balancing work responsibilities and household arrangements when both partners are working; decreasing tolerance for remaining in an unsatisfactory marriage; and increasing community acceptance of divorce in such circumstances. As similar pressures have been experienced by both Muslim and non-Muslim populations, the tendency for Muslim and non-Muslim divorce rates in Malaysia to move in parallel directions is not surprising.</p> Gavin W. Jones Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 35 60 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no4.2 The Changing Educational Gradient in Marriage: Evidence from Malaysia <p>The rising age at marriage and non-marriage has been occurring concurrently with the rising educational level in many developing countries. This paper examines the changing relationship between educational attainment and the marriage rate (per cent ever married) and timing (age at marriage) in Malaysia over the past four decades, using multiple waves of Labour Force Survey data. Bivariate analyses show significant educational differentials in the proportion ever married and mean age at marriage for males and females, across ethnic groups and urban-rural locations. The educational effect on the rate and timing of marriage varied over time. Results from binary logistic regression show that controlling for ethnicity, urban-rural location, and age, the negative educational effect on the rate of marriage has turned positive in recent years. The change in the direction of the relationship between education and marriage rate was more pronounced for males than for females. The reduction in the educational gradient and a shift from negative to positive effect means that the conventional hypothesis of the education-marriage nexus needs to be re-assessed. The effects of rising education on the rate and timing of marriage should be considered in the implementation of the National Family Policy.</p> Siow Li Lai Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 61 91 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no4.3 Family Social Reproduction: Conflict and Compromise in Cross-Border Marriages between Chinese Malaysian Men and Vietnamese Women <p>In this paper, we use the framework of family social reproduction to investigate care relationships within cross-border marriages in Malaysia. Examining the narratives of Chinese Malaysian men and their Vietnamese spouses, we find that (i) the Malaysian men’s labour migration during their twenties and thirties leads to the deferment as well as enablement of marriage, reconfiguring social reproduction temporally and spatially within their life courses, while (ii) the Vietnamese women’s aspirations for migration, work, and marriage interlink with their desire to seek a better life, and their motivations to secure better options to contribute to the social reproduction of their natal families. Tensions in cross-border marriage arise from unmet expectations of care and sustenance, leading to frictions over contested roles and responsibilities in daily household maintenance and care activities, and compromises as marriage partners formulate social reproductive strategies. Exchanges of care, reproductive labour, and money within these marriages are embedded in relational meanings, pointing to the significance of recognising that the care work that shapes and sustains marital relationships is bidirectional, reciprocal, and undertaken by husbands as much as wives.</p> Chee Heng Leng Brenda S.A. Yeoh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 93 120 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no4.4 The Changing Spousal Differentials in Socio-demographic Characteristics in Malaysia <p>This paper uses matched couple data from the 1991, 2000, and 2010 population censuses to examine the changes in spousal differentials in age, education, and work status, as well as inter-ethnic and international marriages. The general trend is one of decreasing spousal age and educational gaps between 1991 and 2010. Although older-man younger-woman marriages still predominated, the spousal age gap decreased from 4.6 years to 3.9 years, and the proportion of marriages in which the husband was more than 6 years older than the wife declined from 30% to 24%. Educational homogamy (couples having the same educational level) rose from 53% to 64%, while the proportion of women marrying someone of higher education declined from 33% to 21%. Inter-ethnic marriage hovered around 4.2% throughout the study period, after rising from less than 1% in the 1980s. International marriages made up about 1.2% of all marriages in 2010, up from 0.8% in 1991. The labour force participation rate of married women had increased significantly, resulting in the rise of dual-income households. The changing spousal differentials in socio-demographic characteristics are bound to alter gender roles and relations that will impact Malaysia’s family institution and demographic outcomes.</p> Nai Peng Tey Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 121 151 10.22452/IJIE.vol13no4.5