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In this article we create an industry-wide metrics of innovation based on the characterization of learning potential of foreign direct investment (FDI), technology acquisition and in-house R&D, analysis of patenting activity, assessment of R&D directions and evaluation of innovation outcomes. Our purpose is to reﬂect on strategies adopted for learning, competence building and innovation and for creating complementarities and linkages within India’s pharmaceutical industry during the post- Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) period. With India facing the challenge of constituting pathways and strategies for accelerated learning, we also explore through whose actions, types of strategies and routes of growth have the limits of Indian pharmaceutical industry innovation been reached within one decade. Finally, how and with what kind of policy design can the Indian state and society intervene to push the frontier of innovation further within this industry. Indian state and business have chosen globalization pathways with specifc implications for innovation. We assess systemic connections of these implications, suggesting that for a signifcant change in domestic and foreign pharmaceutical frms’ orientation to disease, as reﬂected in outcomes of their R&D investment activity, there also has to be a major focus on pathways toward innovation for domestic markets.
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