Main Article Content
Given the path-dependent nature of development, it is instructive that one tracks the historical pathways and the multiple moments in time to explain the past events that resulted in the present socioeconomic state of the Indian plantation workers in Malaysia. This study aims to unfold the historical events of the Indian plantation labourers from the colonial periods until the 1990s that were instrumental in understanding the Indian socioeconomic conditions. In doing so, the narrative was build based on different development stages and the governing environment in which the Indian plantation labourers were positioned. The narrative can capture the dynamics of historical events that lead to the socioeconomic problems of plantation workers. The evidence shows that the historically prolonged neglect has contributed to the challenging socioeconomic conditions of plantation workers, which were path-dependent. Indeed, the fate of plantation workers has not changed despite the takeover of plantation estates through state intervention. The rentier politics undermined the long-term socioeconomic progress of the Indian workers. Besides, the socioeconomic situation of the workers was further impacted by the closure of estates and the influx of foreign workers, which has consequently led to forced migration to cities. Historically, the institutional role was limited to uplifting the Indian plantation labourers. The legacy continued during the 1990s and 2000s and marginalised the ignored Indians, i.e., the plantation labourers. The persistent institutional failures left no room for changes which resulted in the socioeconomic inequality of plantation workers.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described is original, has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out. Transfer of copyright to the University of Malaya becomes effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline and online) or other reproductions of similar nature.
An author may self-archive the English language version of his/her article on his/her own website and his/her institution’s repository; however he/she may not use the publisher’s PDF version which is posted on www.ijie.um.edu.my. Furthermore, the author may only post his/her version, provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link must be accompanied by the following text: “The original publication is available at www.ijie.um.edu.my”.
All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and redistribute the article (e.g. as offprint), as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic database, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from the publishers. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.
The copyright owner’s consent does not include copying for general distribution, promotion, new works, or resale. In these cases, specific written permission must first be obtained from the publishers.