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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs and DOIs for the references have been provided.
  • The text uses a 12-point font; 1.5 spacing, employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

  • Manuscripts submitted to the journal must be original. Authors of submitted manuscripts are obligated to not submit their manuscripts for publication elsewhere until an editorial decision is rendered.

  • Manuscripts must be in two separate documents:

  1. Cover page with full details of the authors including: details of the authors' institutional affiliation; full address and contact information, exact length of the manuscripts, brief (2-3 lines) biographical description and any acknowledgements. One author should be identified as the corresponding author; and

  2. Manuscripts without any author identification/name, that fully matches the journal house style. Ensure that all identifiers have been removed from files such as Microsoft Word documents. Personal or hidden information is stored in File Properties, which can be removed using these steps:
    Tools→ Options → Security tab → File properties → Remove personal information → Save

  • Manuscripts must be in English with British spelling throughout and should be written using MS Word, with Times New Roman font type size 12 with 1.5 line spacing. Foreign words should be in italics. The length should not be more than 12,000 words (inclusive of tables, figures, notes, references and appendices).

  • The manuscripts should begin with an indented and italicized abstract of around 100-200 words, describing the main arguments and conclusions of the article,

  • Each manuscript should have 5 to 6 keywords in alphabetical order followed by the relevant JEL Classification codes.


Style Guidelines

  • The title of the manuscript should be bold and centered.

  • Section heading should be bold, left justified and numbered sequentially

(e.g: 3.     Data and Methodology

  • First level heading should be in italics and bold.

(e.g: 3.1    Data analysis)

  • The second level subheading should be in italic and not bold.

(e.g: 3.1.1 Financial variables).

  • All pages should be numbered consecutively.

  • Endnotes should be kept to a minimum, indicated by superscript figures in the text, and placed at the end of the manuscript.

  • References are cited in the text by the author's surname, and the publication year. Full details are given in the reference list.

                 (Adam, 1994; Grossman and Helpman, 1991; Varblane et al., 2012)

  • References list should follow the APA reference style:


Author, A. A. (2012). This is a book title: And subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2012). This is a book title: And subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

Chapter in a book:

Author, A. A. (2012). This is a chapter. In J. J. Editor (Ed.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 300−316). Abingdon: Routledge. 

Edited Book:

Editor, J. J. (Ed.). (2012). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

Editor, J. J., Editor, A. A., & Editor, P. P. (Eds.). (2012). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.


Author, A. A. (2011). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22(1), 123–231. https://doi.org/xxxx

If there is no DOI and the reference was retrieved from an online database, give the database name and accession number or the database URL (no retrieval date is needed): Author, A. A. (2011). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22, 123–231. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1987). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22(1), 123–231. https://doi.org/xxxx

Tables and Figures


Tables and figures should be numbered separately and sequentially using Arabic numerals. Each table and figure should be given an informative title. Examples of the table and figure style are as follows:

Table 1: Sampling framework of SHGs


 Source: Nithyanandhan and Mansor (2015).



 Source: Nithyanandhan et al. (2015).


Articles and Book Reviews        

Review articles should include a title for the article and should be limited to a maximum of 4,000 words in length and the book title, author, city/publisher, year and number of pages should be listed at the top of the page. An example would be:

How Rich Countries Got Rich … and Why Poor Countries Stay Poor by Eric S. Reinert, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2007, 365 pp.

Ordinary book reviews are limited to 1000 words maximum, focusing on publications of no more than two years old. The author, book title, city/publisher and year should be listed at the top of the page.

Any manuscript that does not conform to the above instructions may be returned to the author for the necessary revision before being sent for review.