Main Article Content
This paper examines post-Soviet reforms on human capital development in Russia. The primitivization of economy in the frst decade of reforms resulted in growing underemployment of skilled labour that drove out two streams of brain drain, viz. one, through classical emigration, and two, through the outﬂow of skilled labour into a wide range of survival activities from shuttle trade to subsistence farming. The consequences of this for the Russian economy were dire as it led to the depreciation and degradation of the national human capital stock. The second decade of reforms generated controversial implications for Russia’s national human capital. On the one hand, it was characterized by the emergence and exacerbation of a wide range of supply-demand human capital mismatches. On the other hand, the revival of labour demand and the partial substitution of direct brain drain for outsourcing widened opportunities for the preservation and accumulation of national human capital.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described is original, has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out. Transfer of copyright to the University of Malaya becomes effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline and online) or other reproductions of similar nature.
An author may self-archive the English language version of his/her article on his/her own website and his/her institution’s repository; however he/she may not use the publisher’s PDF version which is posted on www.ijie.um.edu.my. Furthermore, the author may only post his/her version, provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link must be accompanied by the following text: “The original publication is available at www.ijie.um.edu.my”.
All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and redistribute the article (e.g. as offprint), as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic database, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from the publishers. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.
The copyright owner’s consent does not include copying for general distribution, promotion, new works, or resale. In these cases, specific written permission must first be obtained from the publishers.