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Institutions and Economies (IE) strives to ensure the highest standards of publication ethics by employing all possible measures to avoid publication malpractice. Our responsibility is to publish original work of value to the intellectual community in the best possible form and to the highest possible standard. In return, we expect comparable standards from our reviewers and authors. Conformance to standards of ethical behaviour is therefore expected from all parties including the Editorial Board members, editors, reviewers and authors.

Editors' Responsibilities

  1. The editors should accept a paper for publication when they are reasonably certain of the originality, merits and contribution of the paper;
  2. Editors may discuss with other editors or reviewers in making decision;
  3. Editors to evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors;
  4. They must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate;
  5. The editors are to ensure a fair and appropriate peer review process;
  6. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used by anyone who has a view of the manuscript in his or her own research without the express written consent of the author;
  7. Should maintain the integrity of the published record by issuing corrections and retractions when needed and when pursuing suspected or alleged research and publication misconduct.
  8. Should adopt an arm’s length policy when dealing with authors and avoid any conflict of interest with respect to articles they accept or reject.


Editorial Board Responsibilities

  1. The Editorial Board must keep information pertaining to submitted manuscripts confidential.
  2. Must disclose any conflict of interest with the research, the authors or the research funder.
  3. Must evaluate manuscripts objectively and only for their intellectual content.
  4. The Board is responsible for making publication decisions for submitted manuscripts.
  5. Should ensure the integrity of the journal by observing and enforcing publishing ethics of accepted international standards.


Reviewers' Responsibilities

  1. Information regarding manuscripts submitted by authors should be kept confidential and be treated as privileged information;
  2. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Any conflict of interest pertaining to the research, the authors and the research funders should be made explicit to the editors. There shall be no personal criticism of the author. Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments;
  3. Should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that had been previously reported elsewhere should be accompanied by the relevant citation;
  4. Reviewers should request to the editors' attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge;
  5. If a reviewer feels that it is not possible for him/her to complete a review of a manuscript within the  stipulated time the situation must be communicated to the editors, so that the same manuscript could be sent to any other reviewer;
  6. Should not review manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.


 Authors' Responsibilities

  1. Authors should only submit original papers or work that have been conducted in an ethical and responsible manner and that complies with all relevant legislations;
  2. To present   their   results   clearly,   honestly, and   without   fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation;
  3. To enable their findings be verified by others, authors should endeavour to describe their methods clearly and unambiguously;
  4. Should adhere to publication requirements that submitted work is original, is not plagiarized, and has not been published elsewhere;
  5. Must certify that the manuscript is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere;
  6. Are required to take collective responsibility for submitted and published work;
  7. Should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, this must be appropriately cited;
  8. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Duplicitous or expressively inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable;
  9. Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work;
  10. Should ensure that the authorship accurately reflects individuals’ contributions to the work and its reporting; and where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged;
  11. Authors should disclose relevant funding sources and any existing or potential conflict of interest. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed;
  12. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is his/her obligation to promptly notify the journal editors and the editors to retract or to correct the paper.

Last update: 17 March 2017